I was recently asked about the network configuration I use for my honeyd sensor. I had thought I’d already written about this so initially went to find the article on honeyd configuration; but my memory was wrong and the original post only covered configuring the guest systems, not the honeyd host itself. So, as I now have a pretty(ish) network diagram showing my setup I may as well correct the earlier omission.
<DISCLAIMER: This may not be the best network design for running honeyd, this is merely how my environment is configured and it works for me as a research platform. As usual, your mileage may vary, especially if your use-case differs from my own>
As can be seen, the design has three distinct network segments:
- Publicly route-able IPs
- Internal network for honeypot hosts
- Virtual network for honeyd guest systems. These IP addresses sit on loopback interface on the host, with a static route on the firewall to pass all virtual traffic to the honeyd host.
Using a perimeter firewall with NAT/PAT capabilities allows easy switching between emulated systems and services if your public IP resources are limited; a large network of guests can be configured in advance and left static, then a quick firewall change is all that is required to expose different systems to the world.
Additionally, as much as honeypot systems are designed to be compromised and collect information of malicious attacks (or perhaps more correctly, because of this) , low-interaction systems like honeyd is designed to avoid full compromise. If something goes wrong and the host system gets fully compromised, a (sufficiently configured) perimeter firewall provides some control of outgoing traffic, limiting the attackers options for using the honeypot sensor to attack other systems.
Not much to it really; if you use an different setup and/or can suggest ways to improve the setup let me know, always looking to improve my systems where possible.
— Andrew Waite
VMWare ESXi is perfect for a self contained lab, but as I’m used to having full access to a ‘real’ network there are a few things I miss not having control over for testing and other things. The biggest of these is a spanf port (or mirror port depending on your hardware). If you’re not familiar, the basic premise is to configure one (or more ports) to reproduce any traffic flowing through any port(s). This provides packet level access for debugging network problems, passing to an I[D/P]S, etc.
ESXi doesn’t provide this functionality, but does allow you to set a vSwitch to be ‘promiscuous’. Unfortunately this isn’t as controllable as a span/mirror port as (from the quick tests I’ve run) essentially turns the vSwitch into a vHub. Not a problem in my lab environment but you probably want to give it some serious thought before enabling in a production environment; do you really want every server on the network to be able to see all traffic on the (virtual) wire?
To make the change in ESXi you need host -> Configuration -> Networking and set the properties as shown below:
Once this change is made, any guests connected to the vSwitch can all see any of the network traffic on that switch.
For testing you can build a quick lab scenario with 3 live boot BackTrack systems. Each machine has a different role; server, client and ‘sniffer’. The sniffing machine is now able to view direct communication between the other two systems. Using wireshark’s Follow TCP stream functionality shows the conversation:
Markus keeps adding great features and functionality to Dionaea, when I read the post introducing a new web interface carniwwwhore I couldn’t help thinking I’d got lucky timing, start of a week’s vacation and no real plan for what to do with it. I’ve struggled previously with some of my Dionaea setups, largely because my system was running Debian, whilst Dionaea was built under Ubuntu; doesn’t cause too many problems, just a bit of google-fu, headscratching and stupidity that could have been avoided.
From this background I looked through the carniwwwhore pre-reqs with dread, plenty of version requirements that weren’t upto date with my Debian setup; so it’s time to bite the bullet and build a fresh system with Ubuntu. Unlike some of my previous setups, installation/compilation worked flawless, working on the same distro as the lead dev definitely makes life easier. If you’re looking for a fresh Dionaea installation, go with Ubuntu, you won’t regret it.
(oh, and carniwwwhore? Vacation got the better of me so it’s added to the to-do list; watch this space…)
I’ve tried messing around with SSH port forwarding in the past, but always struggled to get my head around what I was trying to connect to where, and ultimately didn’t result in anything useful. This time around I’ve put in some dedicated time to get to the bottom forwarding ports within SSH tunnels. And I’m glad I did, my with only a handful of connections the possibilities are making my head spin.
To help my head get around problems I encountered I found a number of resources helpful.
Example Scenario: A server (10.0.0.100) on an internal LAN has web services that need to be accessed, but has no remote access through the firewall. Luckily, there is remote access to an SSH server (10.0.0.200) sat on the same LAN.
ssh -L 8000:10.0.0.100:80 ssh-server.somedomain.tld
This connects to the machine at ssh-server.somedomain.tld and, once authenticated, forwards 10.0.0.100:80 to port 8000 on the local machine. Now accessing the remote services is as simple as pointing your browser to http://127.0.0.1:8000.
The same functionality can be achieved using configuration files. For example, edit ~/.ssh/config:
LocalForward 127.0.0.1:8000 10.0.0.100:80
To establish a connection with the configuration file in place simply run; ssh tunnel.
The port forward will remain active for as long as the SSH session is connected. If you don’t need to interact with the SSH session in addition to the forwarded port passing ssh the -fN flags will cause the session to be backgrounded once authentication can be established.
If you haven’t already, I suggest you investigate the possibilities within your own environment; and if an evil grin doesn’t spread across your face then you still don’t fully get it😉
I’m trying to do a better job of documenting the systems that make up InfoSanity. To do that it’s everyone’s favourite, a wiki. In this case I went with DokuWiki, for no real reason other than it came up first on a Google search. Installation is simple on a Debian based system, just the usual: apt-get install dokuwiki. So far so good, but I’m wondering how long I can actually keep the documentation upto date…
At the same time I came across the the BeerWare license from my Twitter feed (sorry, can’t find original message, thanks to whoever pointed me in the right direction. The license was created by Poul-Henning Kamp, and does a good job of summing up my feelings toward the tools/scripts I’ve released the last few years:
/* * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- * "THE BEER-WARE LICENSE" (Revision 42): * <phk@FreeBSD.ORG> wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you * can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think * this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return Poul-Henning Kamp * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- */
So, why not combine the two together? DokuWiki has the ability to apply one of several standard licenses by default, but unfortunately BeerWare isn’t one of them. To correct this obvious mistake edit /etc/dokuwiki/license.php to include:
$license[‘beerware’] = array(
‘name’ => ‘Beerware License’,
‘url’ => ‘http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beerware’,
n.b. I struggled to find a better license location that just deals with the license, if anyone finds better let me know.
Now it’s just a matter of editing the main dokuwiki config file, /etc/dokuwiki/dokuwiki.php:
$conf[‘license’] = ‘beerware’;
<UPDATE>Live download mirror: carnivore.it</UPDATE>
Mercury Live DVD was initially (I believe) announced in a post to the Nepenthes Mailing list. It is a remastered Ubuntu distribution with pre-installed honeypot applications and malware analysis tools created by John Moore. From the ReadMe:
This live DVD is a remastered version of Ubuntu 10.0 Beta LTS x86_32. It was designed due to my being disappointed with another reverse engineering malware live CD that was released recently. I have decided to call my creation MERCURY, which is an acronym for Malware Enumeration, Capture, and Reverse Engineering.
The Mercury live DVD contains tools used for digital forensics, data recovery, network monitoring, and spoofing. It should primarily be used as a honeypot or network monitoring platform as well as a laboratory and teaching aid. There are three honeypots installed – honeyd, nepenthes, and dionaea. Four, if you include netcat.
The majority of the additional applications reside in /opt:
- Dionaea (0.1.0) – Dionaea is a malware collection honeypot focusing primarily on SMB emulation, covered on InfoSanity numerous times before.
- FFP – Fuzzy Fingerprinting is a util to aid SSH MitM attacks.
- Kippo (svn rev.169) – Kippo is an low-medium interaction SSH honeypot, Also covered
- mitm-ssh – Unsurprisingly, a utility for aiding man in the middle attacks against SSH connections.
- Origami & pdftools – Two frameworks for analysing malicious PDF files.
- Volatility – an excellent memory analysis toolkit
- Zerowine-vm – A malware behavior analysis platform. I’ve covered ZeroWine here before, and whilst I find it useful for initial analysis I found it a pain to setup and get running. The fact this works out of the box on Mercury is enough reason alone to keep the .iso handy.
Other tools are installed on the system as started, access from standard locations (/etc, /usr/bin, etc.). I won’t try to list them all, but some highlights include:
- Nepenthes – Dionaea’s predecessor
- Honeyd – Honeypot system, perfect for emulating multiple different systems from one platform. Covered in more depth here.
- John – John the Ripper, password cracker
- ircd-hybrid – irc server daemon, useful for analysis irc-based malware’s interaction with command and control systems.
- Snort – de-facto intrusion detection system.
- Wireshark – Packet capture and network analysis tools.
I could go on, but I’m sure you get the idea.
Setting up a honeypot, and analysing the results, has never been easier. And I’m sure the toolkit’s functionality will also be useful in other scenarios; incident response, general network administration or as a safe learning platform. So what are you waiting for?
N.B. there have been several mirror’s and downloads established, the most reliable download source I’ve used is Markus’ mirror at carnivore.it
I’ve been a bit lax in writing this post; around a month ago Miguel Jacq got in contact to let me know about a couple of errors he encountered when running InfoSanity’s mimic-nepstats.py with a small data set. Basically if your log file did not include any submissions, or was for a period shorter than 24hours the script would crash out, not the biggest problem as most will be working with larger data sets but annoying non the less.
Not only did Miguel let me know about the issues, he was also gracious enough to provide a fix, the updated script can be found here. An example of the script in action is below:
cat /opt/dionaea/var/log/dionaea.log| python mimic-nepstats_v1-1.py
Statistics engine written by Andrew Waite – http://www.infosanity.co.uk
Number of submissions: 84
Number of unique samples: 39
Number of unique source IPs: 65
First sample seen: 2010-06-08 08:25:39.569003
Last sample seen: 2010-06-21 15:24:37.105594
System Uptime: 13 days, 6:58:57.536591
Average daily submissions: 6
Most recent submissions:
2010-06-21 15:24:37.105594, 22.214.171.124, emulate://, 56b8047f0f50238b62fa386ef109174e
2010-06-21 15:18:08.347568, 126.96.36.199, tftp://188.8.131.52/ssms.exe, fd28c5e1c38caa35bf5e1987e6167f4c
2010-06-21 15:17:08.391267, 184.108.40.206, tftp://220.127.116.11/ssms.exe, bb39f29fad85db12d9cf7195da0e1bfe
2010-06-21 06:29:03.565988, 18.104.22.168, tftp://22.214.171.124/ssms.exe, fd28c5e1c38caa35bf5e1987e6167f4c
2010-06-20 23:34:15.967299, 126.96.36.199, http://188.8.131.52/trying.exe, 094e2eae3644691711771699f4947536
— Andrew Waite