Archive for December, 2010

2010: A Review

Originally I wasn’t planning on reviewing this year, didn’t think that much had happened, but during some end of year house keeping came across the InfoSanity review of 2009 and wanted to keep the trend going. In keeping with last years review. I’ll start with the non-technical (again on pain of death 😉 ); wedding plans going strong so I should be a married man early 2011.

Back to the technical: Despite my initial concerns; the site, blog and research environment are still here and still growing. To all those who’ve read, contributed and (most importantly) told me I’m wrong over the past year (you know who you are), thank you.

Lab Environment(s): To complement the home lab established in 2009, 2010 saw the introduction of a hosted virtual lab which has provided the opportunity to easily try new (and old) technologies in the real world. As part of this InfoSanity has setup (and in some cases also removed) instances of honeyd, Dionaea, Amun and Kippo. These systems have also resulted in some new utilities being developed and released as I worked through various findings.

Whilst standing on the shoulders of giants (thanks Markus), some of the findings from the InfoSanity environment are now available publically. Although I really must complete both automating the process and including findings from other systems, 2011’s to-do list is already growing.

Public Speaking: For some reason I’ve still been asked to talk in public about topics I find fascinating; so thanks to the Disaster Protocol team for having me on the show. I felt it was a great discussion of honeypot technologies and infosec in general, and from feedback I’ve had others seem to agree.

Trying new things: Whilst trying to grow and mature over the year InfoSanity tried a few different themes and topics, some worked, like basic ssh hardening guidelines (potentially more to come in new year) and some didn’t, like the ‘Infosec Triads’ series. But if you don’t stretch yourself you’ll stop learning, so expect more posts that don’t quite work in 2011.

Friends, contact and groups: As with last year, the best part of 2010 has definitely been the people I’ve either continued talking to and/or working with and those I’ve met for the first time. 2010 saw a growth spurt in local and online groups I’ve been involved in, including the start of NEBytes, ToonCon and the Kippo User Group. There are also a huge number of awesome groups which I don’t get as much time to get involved with as I’d like; EH-Net, Group51, DissectingTheHack, Exotic Liability…the list goes on.

2011?: Who knows? Every time I try to make plans or predictions the Sky Fairies and Flying Spaghetti Monsters mock me, so I won’t try to make any. But whatever the outcome, I’m not expecting a letup in the pace, and can already see some exciting new opportunities on the horizon.

Another decade down, and a new year of opportunity ahead. See you all in 2011.

–Andrew Waite

Categories: Uncategorized

Dionaea with p0f

Working my way through the compilation instructions from Dionaea whilst building up my latest sensor I was reminded of some optional functionality that I’d always intended to implement, but never found the time. First on my list was p0f (that’s a zero).

From p0f’s homepage:

P0f v2 is a versatile passive OS fingerprinting tool. P0f can identify the operating system on:

– machines that connect to your box (SYN mode),
– machines you connect to (SYN+ACK mode),
– machine you cannot connect to (RST+ mode),
– machines whose communications you can observe.

P0f can also do many other tricks, and can detect or measure the following:

– firewall presence, NAT use (useful for policy enforcement),
– existence of a load balancer setup,
– the distance to the remote system and its uptime,
– other guy’s network hookup (DSL, OC3, avian carriers) and his ISP.

Setting p0f up on the sensor should have been straightforward;

  • Install with: apt-get install p0f
  • Run p0f as suggested in dionaea.conf: sudo p0f -i any -u root -Q /tmp/p0f.sock -q -l
  • And edit dionaea.conf’s ihandler section to enable p0f

This mostly worked, watching the p0f output it was correctly (I’m assuming) providing stats about connecting systems. The problem was that p0f info wasn’t getting saved into Dionaea’s logsqlite database, dionaea-error.log was reporting the below error with each connection:

[04122010 13:48:44] connection connection.c:827-warning: Could not connect un:///tmp/p0f.sock:0 (Permission denied)

Which seemed odd, /tmp/p0f.sock was showing as globally readable. Re-reading the Dionaea compilation instructions I noticed a comment about p0f struggling with IPv6 so has problems it Dionaea is listening on ::, which mine was. Problem solved, I edited dionaea.conf so that Listen mode was set to “manual”, and provided the interface/IP details of my network connection. Only this didn’t solve my problem…

Head thoroughly hurting I swallowed my ego and asked for assistance on the mailing list, and promptly (thanks again Ryan) got a reply that provided a functional workaround.

So, why go to the effort? Main purpose behind running honeypot systems (for me) is to get a better idea understanding of what threats are actively targeting systems in the wild. At first glance the information provided by p0f can quickly help evaluate the attacking system; what OS? what connection type? is it local?

With the limited (few hours) of data I’ve already collected heres a sample of the info you can gather:

last 5 connections:

p0f connection p0f_genre p0f_link p0f_detail p0f_uptime p0f_tos p0f_dist p0f_nat p0f_fw
328 822 Windows IPv6/IPIP 2000 SP4, XP SP1+ -1 17 0 0
327 821 Windows IPv6/IPIP 2000 SP4, XP SP1+ -1 17 0 0
326 820 Windows 2000 SP4, XP SP1+ -1 14 0 0
325 819 Windows 2000 SP4, XP SP1+ -1 14 0 0
324 818 Linux pppoe (DSL) 2.4-2.6 5 13 0 0

SQL Query:

select *
from p0fs
order by
connection desc
limit 5;

Breakdown by OS

count OS
324 Windows
17 Linux

SQL Query:

select count(p0f_genre) as count, p0f_genre as OS
from p0fs
group by p0f_genre
order by count(p0f_genre) desc;

Umm, so most systems spreading malware are (likely) infected Windows systems. No great surprise there…

Connectivity Types

Count Connectivity
153 IPv6/IPIP
149 ethernet/modem
40 pppoe (DSL)
12 (Google/AOL)
5 GPRS, T1, FreeS/WAN
3 PIX, SMC, sometimes wireless
2 sometimes DSL (2)
2 sometimes DSL (4)

SQL Query:

select count(p0f_link), p0f_link
from p0fs
group by p0f_link
order by count(p0f_link) desc;


Unfortunately the the information provided by p0f isn’t an exact science, and as devices and systems are constantly changing it’s only going to be as accurate as it’s latest signatures/fingerprints. But setup is fairly quick, and the information and insight provided fairly interesting. So why not give it a go?

–Andrew Waite

Categories: Dionaea, Honeypot

Introducing InfoSanity’s Dionaea Muscipula…

2010/12/04 Comments off

–Andrew Waite

(p.s. sorry, couldn’t resist…)

Categories: Dionaea

Dionaea in the key of U(buntu)

Markus keeps adding great features and functionality to Dionaea, when I read the post introducing a new web interface carniwwwhore I couldn’t help thinking I’d got lucky timing, start of a week’s vacation and no real plan for what to do with it. I’ve struggled previously with some of my Dionaea setups, largely because my system was running Debian, whilst Dionaea was built under Ubuntu; doesn’t cause too many problems, just a bit of google-fu, headscratching and stupidity that could have been avoided.

From this background I looked through the carniwwwhore pre-reqs with dread, plenty of version requirements that weren’t upto date with my Debian setup; so it’s time to bite the bullet and build a fresh system with Ubuntu. Unlike some of my previous setups, installation/compilation worked flawless, working on the same distro as the lead dev definitely makes life easier. If you’re looking for a fresh Dionaea installation, go with Ubuntu, you won’t regret it.

–Andrew Waite

(oh, and carniwwwhore? Vacation got the better of me so it’s added to the to-do list; watch this space…)


Categories: Dionaea, Honeypot, Lab